The value of ultrasound techniques in the examination of the pleura and lungs has been underestimated over the recent decades, which is especially true for children. However, a variety of pathologies of the chest wall, pleura, and lungs result in altered tissue composition, providing sufficient access and visibility for ultrasound examination. Ultrasound of pleura and lungs can be noninvasively imaged repeatedly without radiation exposure for the pediatric patient. Ultrasound is thus particularly valuable in the follow-up of disease, differential diagnosis, and detection of complications (1).
The use of CEUS in children has not been comprehensively described. However, there are reports that suggest that CEUS may improve the diagnostic confidence of grey scale US supplemented by colour and power Doppler imaging in differentiating consolidated lung from cavitating pneumonia in children, and better delineating the extent and contents of associated para-pneumonic fluid collections (2). Diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in patients with pathologic pleural and pulmonary findings can safely be performed under real-time ultrasound guidance (3). In this presentation, an overview is given presenting not only the benefits and indications but also the limitations of pleural and pulmonary ultrasound (1).